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• I've been teaching long enough to know that doing derivations in class is equivalent to pouring ice water on the proceedings, so I do this sparingly.

我已经教了这么长时间书,所以我知道在课堂上讲推导,就好像泼冰水一样，所以我在讲这个的时候很小心。

麻省理工公开课 - 固态化学导论课程节选

• So a closed system would be, for instance, a glass of ice water with an ice cube in it, with the lid on top.

因此闭系可以是，比如说，一杯放了,一个冰块的冰水，顶上加了盖子。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• There's hardly any vapor pressure above your ice water glass.

冰水混合物上方,水蒸气的气压非常小。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• You take a glass of ice water and set it down.

这是液态；

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• You need to know if it's an equilibrium, and you also need to know how many components you have in your system So, a glass of ice water with an ice cube in it, which is a heterogeneous system, has only one component, which is water, H2O.

要知道它是不是平衡的，你还需要知道,你的系统中有多少组分,一杯放了冰块的水，虽然它是个非均匀系统，但它只有一种组分，那就是水。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• There's the water phase, there's the ice cube is the solid phase, and there's some water, gas, vapor, and that's one bar.

里面放一块冰，这是固态；,于是我们得到了水，冰和水蒸气三态共存的点。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• The partial pressure of the water, of gaseous water above that equilibrium of ice and water is not one bar, it's much less.

哪里错了吗？,问题在于,冰水混合物上方的,大气中水蒸气的分压，不是一个大气压。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• It could be a glass of water with ice in it.

它可以是一杯有冰块的水。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

• You're going to have to know when you describe the system, if your system is homogeneous, like your coffee with milk in it, or heterogeneous like water with an ice cube in it So heterogeneous means that you've got different phases in your system.

你要知道,当你描述一个系统时，你的系统是均匀的呢，像掺了牛奶的咖啡，那样还是非均匀的，像放了冰块的水,非均匀系统就是说,在你的系统中有不同的相存在。

麻省理工公开课 - 热力学与动力学课程节选

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